12 Oct 2015 Global marine analysis suggests food chain collapse
Climate Change & Oceans

Ocean acidification is at a 20 million year high and the rate is at a 300 million year high (see Jelle Bijma 2013)
Atmospheric GHG Pollution Impacts on the World's Oceans

​July 2015 Science ConsensusvImmediate and substantial reduction of CO2 emissions is required to prevent the massive and mostly irreversible impacts on ocean ecosystems and their services that are projected with emissions greater than those in RCP2.6.

The oceans that collectively make up the World Ocean play a fundamental role in the global climate system.

According to a research paper published in Nature Climate Change (Aug 2013), ocean life is being forced to migrate faster than life on land due to climate induced changes that are occurring in the marine environment.

​There is a clear consensus from the many scientific statements  that are now being made about ocean acidification, that rapid,  unprecedented changes are occurring (EPOCA statement).​​ According to the NOAA on ocean acidity, the oceans are more acid than they have ever been over the past 20 million years. In 50 years acidity will increase 120% if no emergency response is initiated.

A 2009 Interacademyscience statement warned that at current emission rates ... all coral reefs and polar ecosystems will be severely affected by 2050 or potentially even earlier.

Ocean acidification is occurring faster today than it has over the past 300 million years.

The oceans are being warmed and acidified forever. Scientists expect that the ocean will eventually take up about 85% of anthropogenic CO2- because the ocean takes ~1000 years to mix, this process will take many hundreds to thousands of years (see Carbon and Climate).

The ocean (World Ocean) impact due to atmospheric CO2 pollution is often forgotten in climate change considerations. Our planet Earth is in effect the Ocean planet because the World Ocean provides an incomparably larger habitat for life than the land.

​​The oceans are the ultimate controller of the climate system. By absorbing CO2 from the air at the sea surface, carbon is combined with calcium by shell bearing marine organisms and sinks to the ocean floor when these organisms die, and in so doing gets locked up in ocean sediments. Over ages of time the calcium compressed in the sea floor sediment returns to the land as limestone and dolomite rock. This is the ultra-long ocean carbon cycle. ​

Global heating from GHG emissions is largely ocean heating because the oceans have taken up over 90% of greenhouse gas heat (NOAA) that has been added to the lower atmosphere. Ocean heat content has been rapidly increasing-and accelerating since 2010.

The key reason as to why the global warming surface temperature increase  has stalled is because, quite suddenly, near surface ocean heat is being transported into the deep ocean to such an extent, which in actual fact means that global heating has accelerated further.

This greenhouse gas heat that is stored in our oceans is a large reason for our future commitment to much more land surface warming than we have experienced to date. ​​

It takes 30-50 years for the heat of a greenhouse gas emission to be diffused and circulate through the oceans and register as a temperature increase at the ocean surface. Consequently, due to the ocean heat lag, the heat taken up by the oceans is the primary cause of climate change inertia. Even if emissions were to stop, the ocean would continue to add heat to the planets surface. This is the ocean heat lag warming future commitment and also partly explains why global warming persists for over a thousand years.

The warming of the Ocean was initially limited to the surface water, but research on ocean heat content now shows that over the past decade there has been a large increase in heat transfer to the deep ocean. ​​This explains the stalled global average surface warming, and in fact means global heating has increased.

Warming of the surface water causes bleaching and death of corals reefs, which play a fundamental role in supporting ocean biodiversity. ​​

Deeper ocean warming slows currents that play a crucial role in bringing oxygen and food to marine creatures, and also in ocean cleansing. Consequently, deep hypoxic ocean dead zones are forming and expanding.

It is estimated that the oceans have absorbed as much as 40% of the emitted CO2 through the vast expanse of surface waters. ​​CO2 gas dissolves in sea water to form carbonic acid, which results in ocean acidification. Acidification affects the ability of marine organisms to calcify - some shell forming species are showing signs of decalcification - and damages the biological carbon pump essential for assimilating and sinking carbon. ​​Ocean  acidification is yet another reason why atmospheric carbon pollution is catastrophically dangerous.


  ​Latest Research           by date

15 Dec 2021 ​​Biogeochemical extremes, compound events in the ocean

5 Oct 2021 State of World's Coral Reefs 2020​​

21 Sept 2021 ​An Overview of Ocean Climate Change Indicators: Sea Surface Temperature, Ocean Heat Content, Ocean pH, Dissolved Oxygen Concentration, Arctic Sea Ice Extent, Thickness and Volume, Sea Level and Strength of the AMOC (Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation)​

26 August 2021 Novel and disappearing climates in the global surface ocean from 1800 to 2100

5 August Observations for collapse Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation ​​

5 May 2021 ​​Fevers are plaguing the oceans — and climate change is making them worse

16 April 2021 ​A committed fourfold increase in ocean oxygen loss​

24 Mar 2021
​Climate change has reduced ocean mixing far more than expected​

Mar 17 2021 ​Ocean areas that, if strongly protected, would help solve climate, food and biodiversity crises. And bottom trawling releases as much CO2 as all aviation. ​

​​2 March 2021 The quiet crossing of ocean tipping points

22 Feb 2021 ​The quiet crossing of ocean tipping points​

​​14 Jan 2021 Unbelievable: Earth's Oceans Store Unparalleled Amounts of Heat

2 Oct 2020 ​​Climate change responsible for record sea temperature and sea levels Ocean State Report 

30 Sept 2020
​Ocean warming and acidification effects on calcareous phytoplankton communities​

28 Sept 2020 ​Increasing stability decreases ocean productivity, reduces carbon burial. Research Paper PDF.  Oceans Out of Balance article

14 August 2020 ​​Trophic pyramids reorganize when food web architecture fails to adjust to ocean change>oceans collapse

10 August 2020 ​​Rapid deep ocean deoxygenation and acidification threaten life on Northeast Pacific seamounts

6 April 2020 ​Fossil fuels add to world’s marine (coastal) dead zones

31 March 2020
Climate crisis may have pushed world's tropical coral reefs to tipping point of 'near-annual' bleaching​​

​26 Feb 2020
 Climate Change is Pushing Giant Ocean Currents Poleward (gyres)                (dire effects on food)

​​24 April 2021 Recent hemispheric asymmetry in global ocean warming induced by climate change and internal variability (RCP8.5)

3 Feb 2020 ​Deep ocean oxygen levels more susceptible to climate change 

THREAT The impacts of the climate crisis on tropical coral reefs and the communities that rely on them. Full transition to zero carbon all major industrialised economies by 2030

Jan 2020 Record-Setting Ocean Warmth Continued in 2019

26 Aug 2019​ Acidification diminishes diatom silica production in the Southern Ocean (Diatoms contribute 40% of ocean productivity)

8 July 2019
​Near ocean acid threshold leading to runaway mass Earth extinction event 

16 Mar 2019 Also ​Acidifying oceans on the base of the ocean's food web 

12 June 2019 Article ​Marine biomass will plummet unless greenhouse gases curbed    The paper
25 June 2019 Global ensemble projections reveal trophic amplification of ocean biomass declines with climate change​

NOTE: June 2014 ​Ocean Acidification Is Toxifying Phytoplankton

4 July 2019 ​Global biogeography of coral recruitment: tropical decline and subtropical increase

14 June 2019​ Global ensemble projections reveal trophic
amplification of ocean biomass declines with climate change

5 April 2019 ​Climate change’s deadliest effects are unfolding under the sea

3 April 2019 Great Barrier Reef can't heal after global warming damage​

15 March 2019 The state of ocean CO2 uptake​

March 2019 Marine heatwaves threaten global biodiversity and the provision
of ecosystem services
​1 March 2019 Impacts of historical warming on marine fisheries production

25 Feb 2019 ​The Ocean Is Running Out of Breath, Scientists Warn

6 Feb 2019 Underwater forests threatened by future climate change, new study finds

​10 Jan 2019 Oceans ​​heating up 40% faster than estimates

​​25 July 2018 Ecosystem restructuring along the Great Barrier Reef following mass coral bleaching (adverse effect of marine heat wave of coral supportive fish)

19 July 2018 ​​
Large-scale ocean de-oxygenation during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. [and sulfidic the combination] rendering most of oceans 'uninhabitable by multi-cellular organisms'. PDF


June 2018​ 
Drivers and mechanisms of ocean deoxygenation,
Andreas Oschlies (accelerating)

10 April 2018​​  Longer and more frequent marine heatwaves over the past century

14 Mar 2018 ​Coral reef experiment shows: Acidification from carbon dioxide slows growth

​​5 Jan 2018 Declining oxygen in the global ocean and coastal waters

​​9 Jan 2018 Climate change drives collapse in marine food webs

Sept 2017 Marine mass extinction heading ​​

29 May 2017 ​​Coral Reef Ecosystems under Climate Change and Ocean Acidification

4 May 2017 ​​Deoxygenation. Decades of data on world's oceans reveal a troubling oxygen decline. “The trend of oxygen falling is about two to three times faster than what we predicted ...'

16 March 2017
Global warming and recurrent mass bleaching of corals​​

​​7 Mar 2017 multiple ocean stress Rapid emergence of climate change in
environmental drivers of marine ecosystems
Stephanie A. Henson

​Sept 2016  IUCN Explaining Ocean Warming

​​​​​​27 April 2016 OCEANS
​​Deoxygenation due to climate change threatens marine life

2016 UN  ​​The First Global Integrated Marine Assessment

29 March 2016​​ Australia's Great Barrier Reef hit by 'worst' bleaching (ever).​​

23 March 2016 Reviews and Syntheses: Ocean acidification and its potential impacts on marine ecosystems
extends 'the oceanic areas that constitute a source instead
of a sink or carbon dioxide presently mostly concentrated in
the equatorial zone' ... 'ocean acidification is expected to introduce deep changes in marine habitats, and food web processes.'

29 Jan 2016 ​​​Ocean acidification impacting population demography, hindering adaptation potential

1 Feb 2016 Phytoplankton rapidly disappearing from the Indian Ocean​​

30 Jan 2016 Atlantic acidification Rapid anthropogenic changes in CO2 and pH in the Atlantic Ocean: 2003–2014​​. An article ​​​​

​​19 Jan 2016 Global ocean warming has doubled in recent decades (more 30% going deep), scientists find

​​15 Dec 2015 Baby fish will be lost at sea in acidified oceans

14 Dec 2015 ​​Fish Stocks A
re Declining Worldwide- Climate Change

12 Oct 2015 ​​​Global marine analysis suggests food chain collapse

17 June 2015 Growing feedback ​from ocean to climate ​

June 2015 WARMING CATASTROPHIC COLLAPSE PHYTOPLANKTON Mathematical Modelling of Plankton–Oxygen
Dynamics Under the Climate Change

15 Jan 2015 ​​Ocean Life Faces Mass Extinction, Broad Study Says

23 Sept 2015​​ Earth's oceans show decline in microscopic plant life​​

20 July 2015 Ocean acidification -dramatic changes to phytoplankton​

3 July 2015 Contrasting futures for ocean and society from different anthropogenic CO2 emissions scenarios
J.-P. Gattuso​​

​​16 June 2015 Ocean acidification corrode marine animals' shells by 2030

24 Mar 2015 EU Very trapid warming of seas​​ 10X past 100 year mean.

​​Nov 2014 Climate change to expand almost all coastal dead zones


July 2014 Science Consensus ​​Contrasting futures for ocean and society.. CO2 emissions

June 2015 Ocean warming sea life- higher stress more O2 needed but also less ocean O2.

9 April 2015 Triassic mass extinction may give clues on how oceans will be affected by climate change.

​24 March 2015 N. Atlantic Ocean  overturning circulation slow down already. 

Jan 2014 T. Webb. Global Patterns of Extinction Risk in Marine and Non-marine Systems
20-25% well known marine species threat extinction- same as land plants and animals.​

​​Feb 2015 Ocean depths heating steadily
despite global 'pause'​​​

May 2014 Phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass will decrease 6 and 11 percent due to climate change.
Jan 2014 Study projects unprecedented loss of corals in Great Barrier Reef due to warming reduced to 10% by
​less than 1-2C warming.​

July 2014 Mixing it up: Study provides new insight into Southern Ocean behavior [Nature Geoscience, 2014; DOI: 10.1038/ngeo2200]

July 2014 Study reveals strong links between Antarctic climate, food web [Nature Communications, 2014; 5 DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5318]

June 2014 Warming climates intensify greenhouse gas given out by oceans; [Nature Geoscience; DOI: 10.1038/ngeo2181]

June 2014 Fish and aquatic life living in the high seas are more valuable as a carbon sink than as food and should be better protected, according to new research.

June 2014 Value of high seas ecosystems; destroying deep sea carbon sponge ​​

May 2014 Melting Arctic opens new passages for invasive species; early action could protect coasts [Nature Climate Change, 2014; DOI: 10.1038/nclimate2244]

May 2014 West Antarctic Glaciers in Irreversible Decline

May 2014 Climate change and forest fires synergistically drive widespread melt events of the Greenland Ice Sheet [PNAS 2014; doi/10.1073/pnas.1405397111]

April 2014 California coast ​​pteropod die off from acidification

Jan 2014 Life on the Edge Low latitude equatorial fish will not survive warming
2013 ​Climate change and the oceans – What does the future hold? J. Bijma Acidification+warming+

​​Jan 2014 ​Dramatic Spikes in Ocean Acidity
May Drastically Impact 

Coastal Ecosystems

Dec 2013 Multi-decadal range changes vs. thermal adaptation

​​Eureka alertreport large loss of marine life projected

Nov 2013 Atlantic plankton Has climate change caused a drop-off in a food source crucial to ocean creatures?​
Pacific Ocean Warming at Fastest Rate in 10,000 Years
Nov 2013 Science
Oct 2013 Study Ocean warming+ acidification ​No Safe Havens in Increasingly Acid Oceans. Nature paper (full free)The projected timing of climate departure from recent variability
Camilo Mora, et al.
​Global mean ocean pH moved outside its historical variability by 2008. 

6 Sept 2013 ​​... water temperature has a direct impact on maintaining the delicate plankton ecosystem of our oceans.

2011 Ove Hoegh Guldberg
​​​Extinctions feared as ocean dead zones grow

July 2010 ​​Global phytoplankton decline over the past century: -40% in 60 years

2009 P. G. Brewer, E. T. Peltzer. Limits to marine life.Ocean Dead Zones Likely To Expand: Increasing Carbon Dioxide and Decreasing Oxygen​.  Brewer and Peltzer's calculations suggest that the partial pressure of carbon dioxide will increase even faster in the deep oxygen minimum zones.

2009 G. Shaffer Long-term ocean oxygen depletion in response to carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels. Dramatic Expansion Of Dead Zones In Oceans Likely With Unchecked Global Warming​​

2008 Warmer ocean means less oxygen, more dead zones, study says.
The study Ocean oxygen minima expansions and their biological impacts
Lothar Stramma

The many damaging ocean effects of atmospheric GHG pollution The Ocean Foundation
Today's Accelerating Ocean warming, Acidification &
 De-oxygenation is a Dire Planetary Emergency


​The health and human rights approach to climate change

July 2015 Science Consensus
​Contrasting ​futures
for ocean and society from different CO2 emissions scenarios
Research July 2015 Dramatic changes to phytoplankton from acidification​
16 August 2015 World's coral reefs doomed even if the Dec 2015 UN Paris Climate Conference is successful. 
VIDEO Nov 2015 Rapidly acidifiying Southern Ocean
1 Feb 2016.  Phytoplankton rapidly disappearing from the Indian Ocean due to warming stratification.
27 April 2016Deoxygenation- climate change threatens marine life
​Mathematical ​Modelling of Plankton–Oxygen Dynamics Under the Climate Change.

2016 e-book Overview
UN ​​1st Global Marine Assessment

Global warming will expand both coastal dead zones and deep ocean dead zones 
16 March 2017 Coral reefs are doomed without immediate measures (global emissions decline) on global warming
Australia Climate Council July 2018 Extreme ​ocean temperatures occurring every two years ... 'effectively destroying the Great Barrier Reef' ​ 
July 2010 ​​Global phytoplankton decline over the past century: -40% in 60 years
Oct 2017 BIOACID  largest study ever shows that ocean acidification along with other ocean effects of atmospheric GHG pollution puts practically all marine life at risk.
​Oceans have absorbed 30% of CO2 emissions. 
Ocean acidification
3 July 2015  '...impacts on key marine and coastal organisms, ecosystems, and services are already detectable, and several will face high risk of impacts well before 2100, even under the low-emissions scenario (RCP2.6). These impacts will occur across all latitudes,  Third, immediate and substantial reduction of CO2 emissions is required to prevent the massive and mostly irreversible impacts on ocean ecosystems and their services 
2017 Ocean Deeply Ocean warming and de-oxygenation will impact phytoplankton - that make most of our oxygen. Ocean acidification ​and warming will impact zooplankton essential for ocean life and for sinking carbon. 
Sea surface temperature tracker
We should be assessing rate of climate change primarily by ocean heating
IPCC 2019 Oceans Report (& cryosphere) IPCC Ocean extracts 
Record ocean heating increase 2014-2021
​=10 atomic bombs/second
Triple Deadly Ocean Assaults: 
o Heating                                      o Acidification                              o De-oxygenation 

Ocean Deox FeedbacksDeoxygenated deeper ocean waters produce greenhouse gases such as nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane 
Latest Research
​under menu
5 Aug 2021 Observation,,, for a collapse of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation
17 June 2015Growing feedback from ocean carbon to climate
21 Sept 2021, An Overview of Ocean Climate Change Indicators  (multiple) ​
5 Oct 2021 State of World's Coral Reefs 2020​​, 2009- 2018  14% coral loss